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Sewage treatment plant operation management manual

Operation management of the coagulation sedimentation system of Sewage treatment plant

(1) The operating operator should observe and record the growth of the rock in the reaction cell and compare it with previous records. If an abnormality is found, the cause should be analyzed in time and corresponding countermeasures should be taken. For example, the rock particles at the end of the reaction tank are fine and the water is turbid. It is not easy to precipitate, indicating that coagulant administration is not enough. If the rock particles at the end of the reaction tank are large but loose, the effluent from the sedimentation tank is abnormally clear, but the effluent is also entrained with a large number of sandflowers. This indicates that the coagulant is the most excessively applied, making the ridge particles grow abnormally, but not dense. Not easy to precipitate.
(2) The operation management personnel shall strengthen the inspection of the quality of the sewage of the people, and conduct the beaker stirring test regularly. The optimum coagulation conditions are determined by changing the type of coagulant or coagulant, changing the dosage of the coagulant, changing the agitation intensity of the mixing process, and the like. For example, when the amount of water or AS concentration in water changes, the dosage of coagulant should be adjusted appropriately; when the temperature or pH of the influent water changes, the coagulant or coagulant can be changed to improve the coagulation effect; In the case of changes in the content of organic colloidal particles, the suspect or coagulant should also be adjusted in time.
(3) When using the mechanical mixing method, the mixing speed gradient of the mixing zone should be periodically tested and calculated (G). When there is a problem, adjust the speed of the mixing equipment or adjust the inflow sewage volume. When mixing with a pipe or mixing with a static mixer, the flow rate is reduced due to a decrease in flow rate, resulting in insufficient mixing strength. For other types of non-mechanical mixing methods, there are similar situations. In this case, reasonable scheduling of operation should be strengthened to ensure sufficient flow rate in the mixing zone. The same is true for hydraulic flocculation reactors, which should be adjusted by flow rate to ensure their water flow rate.
(4) The sludge in the flocculation reaction tank should be regularly removed to avoid a decrease in the volume of the reaction zone. The increase of the flow velocity in the cell shortens the reaction time, resulting in a decrease in the coagulation effect.
(5) A large amount of mud accumulates between the end of the reaction tank and the influent water distribution wall of the sedimentation tank, which will block part of the water distribution orifice, so that the flow velocity of the orifice is too large, breaking the silk flower, and the sedimentation is difficult. At this point, stop running to clear the mud.
(6) The sedimentation tank should reasonably determine the number of sludge discharges and sludge discharge time, and the operator should timely and accurately discharge the mud. Otherwise, a large amount of dirt will be accumulated in the sedimentation tank, which will reduce the effective pool capacity and make the flow rate in the sedimentation tank too large.
(7) Inspections should be strengthened to ensure that the sedimentation tanks are leveled out. Otherwise, the uneven water in the sedimentation tank will cause a short flow in the pool, which will destroy the sedimentation effect of the silk flower.
(8) The operation status of mixing, reaction, sludge discharge or drug delivery equipment should be observed frequently, and maintenance should be carried out in a timely manner. If a failure occurs, the repair should be replaced in time.
(9) Clean the dosing equipment regularly to keep it clean and hygienic; clean the pool wall regularly to prevent algae from breeding.
(10) When using ferric chloride as a coagulant, attention should be paid to checking the corrosion of the equipment and timely anti-corrosion treatment.
(11) Regularly calibrate the dosing and measuring facilities and replace them if necessary to ensure accurate measurement.
(12) Strengthen the inspection of stockpiles to prevent the deterioration of the medicament. Pay special attention to ferrous sulfate. The drug should be implemented in the principle of “pre-existing first use”.
(13) Strictly implement the health and safety system when dispensing, and must wear rubber gloves and other labor protection measures.
(14) Analyze, measure and record.
1 Items to be observed and observed in each shift: the front end of the reaction tank, the end, the condition of the flowering area in the sedimentation tank; the turbidity of the influent water in the sedimentation tank;
2 Items to be measured daily: ss, CODcr, BOD5, TP, pH value of the influent water, sewage water temperature, inflow sewage flow rate, mixing and stirring equipment speed and power.
3 The calculated items should be analyzed periodically: the mixing zone, the hydraulic retention time of the reaction zone, the agitation speed gradient (G) or the hydraulic flow rate.
4 Items that should be tested regularly: Through a beaker test, the amount of the mixture, coagulant, type, and dosage can be tested.

Operation management of the filter section

(1) Pay attention to the change of the influent water quality of the filter. When the concentration of the influent sewage is too high, it should be urged to strengthen or improve the treatment effect of the pre-stage process, or increase the number of filters that are put into operation to ensure the water output of the filter. The water quality is up to standard.
(2) Always pay attention to the cleanliness of the filter material. The filter material is found to be due to the following reasons: the concentration of the influent sewage is too high; the flushing strength is insufficient; the water distribution system is uneven. At this time, measures should be taken for the above reasons to ensure that the effluent water quality meets the requirements.
(3) If there is gas in the filter layer, a large amount of air bubbles will emerge from the liquid surface during backwashing, commonly known as gas resistance. The air resistance can increase the head loss of the filter too fast; or cause cracks in the filter layer; or create a short flow of water; or cause sand leakage and running sand. The cause of the air resistance may be: after the filter is filtered, the water is not filtered and the water continues to flow; the backwash water entrains a certain amount of air; the filter pool generates anaerobic decomposition. At this time, measures should be taken to eliminate the air resistance in time for the above reasons.
(4) Pay attention to the flatness of the surface of the filter layer. If the support layer or the water distribution system is blocked, the surface of the filter material will be partially convex. If the support layer is partially collapsed, the surface of the filter material will be partially concave. At this time, it is necessary to check and stop the pool repair in time to avoid uneven filtration of the filter layer and reduce the quality of the effluent water.
(5) During the filtration operation, the water quality and the surface of the filter layer should be observed to see if there is any sand leakage. If there is, the water distribution system may be uneven and the support layer may be loose. At this point, you should check and stop the pool repair in time.
(6) Pay attention to the change of influent water quality in time, change the turbidity of flushing water during backwashing, and adjust the backwashing intensity to ensure the efficiency of backwashing.
(7) Pay close attention to the backwashing process. If the sand is washed back in the effluent, the flushing strength should be reduced in time. If sand is used during backwashing due to improper grading of the filter material, the filter material should be replaced.
(8) Filter surface filter (during downstream flow filtration) should be periodically flushed or replaced with a large surface.
(9) All kinds of gates, valves or pumps should be maintained frequently to ensure normal opening. Always check the filter head or water distribution hole for blockage and clean it in time.
(10) The filter tank wall and drain tank should be kept clean at all times, and the growing algae should be removed in time.
(11) Periodically vent the filter for a full inspection. For example: check whether the surface of the filter layer is flat after filtration and backwashing, whether there are cracks, whether there is any separation from the wall around the filter layer, and try to check whether the support layer is loose.
(12) When the filter has been running continuously for more than 10 years, or the mud content of the filter tank is significantly increased, the mud ball is too much and can not be solved by improving the flushing; after the washing, the sand surface is uneven, the sand layer is gradually reduced, and the effluent carries a large amount. Sand grain; too much crack on the sand surface, even out of the pool wall; when the water distribution system is blocked or the pipeline is damaged, causing serious flushing and unevenness, the filter should stop running for overhaul. The contents of the overhaul of the filter should be: remove the filter material and replace it; replace the support layer for cleaning, replace the damaged part; thoroughly clean all parts of the filter; complete all piping systems Check and repair, and the underwater part is treated with anti-corrosion treatment.
(13) After cleaning or replacing the filter material, pay attention to the following problems when re-paving: the principle of layered paving should be followed. After each layer is completed, first check whether the required height is reached, and then flatten and scrape. Then proceed to the next layer of paving; if conditions permit, the filter material should be filled by means of water scattering. After the filling is completed, the water is drained, and the surface layer of fine sand or debris is removed and scraped off. For the double-layer filter material, after the bottom layer of the filter material is loaded, the first layer of the filter material is first rinsed to scrape off the fine particles and debris of the surface layer, and then The loading of the upper layer of oil shall be carried out; the actual paving height of the filter layer shall be 50 mm higher than the design height; for the anthracite filter material, after being put into the filter tank, it shall be immersed in water for more than 24 hours, and then the water shall be drained for rinsing and smoothing; The filter material should be filled into the water from the bottom as much as possible when it is first introduced into the water, and soaked for more than 8 hours before it can be put into operation.
(14) Make measurements and record. When the filter tank treats the secondary biochemical effluent and operation management of the sewage treatment plant, the contents to be calculated or recorded are: the flow rate and temperature of the influent sewage, the filtration rate, the working cycle of each pool, the intensity and duration of each flushing, and the flushing of the water containing sand. Quantity and so on. The items that should be measured every day are: CODcr, BOD5, SS for influent and effluent. The items to be measured in each shift are: turbidity (preferably continuous online testing).

Operation management of the disinfection system and the flow metering device

(1) During the actual operation management process, the number of coliform bacteria in the influent sewage (secondary effluent) should be measured frequently, and the amount of chlorinated chlorine should be determined according to the requirements of the effluent after disinfection. For the reclaimed water after deep treatment, it should also be controlled according to the residual chlorine requirement of the reuse water network.
(2) Liquid chlorine cylinders should pay attention to the following points during transportation: they should be transported by professional vehicles; they should be lightly loaded and unloaded, sliding, throwing or masking is strictly prohibited, and stacking is strictly prohibited; chlorine bottles are not allowed to be combined with hydrogen and oxygen. , Block B, ammonia and other liquefied gases are shipped in the same vehicle.
(3) The following items should be noted for the storage of liquid chlorine: the storage room should comply with the regulations of the fire department regarding dangerous goods warehouses. Before the chlorine bottle is stored in the warehouse, it should be checked for chlorine leakage and the necessary visual inspection. The leak detection method is to use 10% ammonia water to align the possible chlorine leakage parts for a few minutes. If chlorine is leaked, it will form a Baise smoke (chlorine and ammonia crystals formed by chlorine and ammonia). The visual inspection includes cracks or deformations in the bottle wall. When there is a hard injury, partial flaky corrosion or dense speckle corrosion, it is necessary to combine the situation to see if it needs to be scrapped. The storage of chlorine bottles should be based on the principle of first-come, first-served, and prevent the storage period of some chlorine bottles from being too long. Each shift should be checked for leaks in the warehouse. 10% ammonia water should be kept in the warehouse for leak detection.
(4) When using the chlorine bottle, please pay attention to it: Before the chlorine bottle is opened, check that the chlorine bottle is placed correctly, and then try to open the chlorine valve. Different specifications of chlorine bottles have different placement requirements. The details will be detailed in the manual. After the chlorine bottle is tightly connected to the chlorinator and put into use, use 10% ammonia to check for nitrogen leakage at the joint. Chlorine bottles should always be washed with tap water during use to prevent the shell from frosting due to cooling. After the chlorine bottle is used, it is necessary to ensure a residual pressure of 0.05~0.1MPa to avoid corrosion of the cylinder after the water is wet, and this is also the need to refill the chlorine bottle.
(5) The chlorinator has various forms and complicated structure. In the process of use, it must not only operate correctly according to the requirements of the manual, but also should keep in mind the safe use items indicated in the manual to ensure safe operation.
(6) The chlorination room has the following safety measures: the chlorination room should have a complete ventilation system and maintain normal ventilation at all times, and the air exchange rate per hour is generally more than 10 times. In the winter, there should be appropriate insulation measures around the chlorine bottle in the hydrogenation chamber to prevent the formation of chlorine ice in the bottle. However, it is strictly forbidden to use a heat source such as an open flame to keep the chlorine bottle warm. Chlorination should be placed in the most prominent and convenient location with fire extinguishing tools and gas masks. The chlorination tank should be provided in the chlorination room, and the lye in the tank should be ensured at all times. When a serious leak of the chlorine bottle is found, the gas mask should be taken first, and then the leaked chlorine bottle should be placed in the lye.
(7) When an acute chlorine poisoning accident occurs, the following treatments should be noted: Try to quickly transfer the poisoned person to fresh air. For those who have difficulty breathing, artificial respiration is strictly prohibited and should be allowed to take oxygen independently. If necessary, a 5 % sodium bicarbonate solution can also be inhaled. Wash eyes, nose and mouth with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution or normal saline. Serious poisoning, immediately medical staff to handle or rush to the hospital, if necessary, can be injected with cardiotonic agents.
(8) Recording and analysis: The daily use number, specification, and usage time of the chlorine bottle should be recorded for each shift, and the station number and operating status of the chlorinator should be used. The total amount of chlorine to be injected and the amount of chlorine added per unit of sewage should be analyzed daily. The number of water coliforms should be analyzed and measured daily, and test records should be made. The number and specifications of the bottle in and out of the chlorine bottle warehouse should be recorded daily. The quantity and quality of the stored ammonia and lye should be checked regularly, and records should be made and replaced if necessary.

Operation management of the flow metering device

At present, the sewage water quantity juice presenting devices commonly used in urban sewage treatment plants are divided into two types, one is the open channel type measuring equipment. Such as pasteurized juice, thin-walled sputum; the other is pipeline-type metering equipment, such as ultrasonic flowmeters, electromagnetic flowmeters, etc.
(1) Operation management of open channel metering devices
(1) Regularly check whether there is mud (or debris), empty drum or falling off in the open channel. If it is found that it should be cleaned and repaired in time, keep the open channel clean and flat, so as not to affect the measurement accuracy.
(2) Always observe whether the measuring tank (made of FRP) or the thin wall 变形 is deformed. If deformation is found, it will be replaced in time when it affects the measurement accuracy.
(3) Observe the bottom of the open channel regularly and check whether there is mud in the connection between the hole and the channel. If mud is found to be cleaned in time, it will not affect the flow of the open channel or cause blockage.
(4) Pay attention to the change of the water level before and after the throat or thin wall of the measuring tank, and make a record to facilitate calculation and judge whether the flow state of the open channel water flow meets the requirements of the quantitative conditions and ensure the accuracy of the measurement results.
(5) Record the upstream water depth or dome depth on a daily or shift basis and calculate the sewage flow according to the measurement formula.
(two) electromagnetic flowmeter
(1) Pay attention to the flow and flow rate changes in the sewage pipeline to ensure that the measurement results are measured under full flow conditions.
(2) Pay attention to the maintenance of indoor and outdoor instruments to prevent the instrument from being affected by strong sunlight, strong winds and high temperatures.
(3) Avoid using electromagnetic equipment such as electric motors and transformers in the vicinity of measuring devices and display instruments to avoid interference with measurement and transmission by strong magnetic fields or strong electric fields.
(4) Set the necessary warning signs to avoid the influence of electromagnetic field, heavy load, rainwater immersion and construction on the electrical circuit of the measuring device.
(5) Maintain records, instructions, calculations and other instruments and equipment to ensure accurate measurement. Otherwise it should be replaced in time.
(6) Record the meter and record the sewage flow on a daily or shift basis; or observe and record the other records and the working status of the meter.